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In 1981, representatives of several major dialects began to pool their efforts to design Common Lisp, an `industrial strength' dialect of Lisp that would provide stability for commercial applications.
The initial design of Common Lisp was well received, and in 1986
was formed to transform this work into a formal standard.
The resulting design,
is a standard for Common Lisp--
The Common Lisp standard improves on earlier Common Lisp work by placing much greater emphasis on portability, clarifying many aspects of compilation semantics, and adding several major pieces of new functionality: an object-oriented programming system, a condition handling system, an improved iteration facility, and better support for large character sets.
As an official reference to the Common Lisp language, hardcopy documentation of ANSI Common Lisp, (American National Standard X3.226) from ANSI is always definitive.
The hypertext markup for this document was created by Kent Pitman, with the aid of a custom program written in Common Lisp and created specifically for this task. Funding for the markup task was provided by and copyright of the result is owned by Xanalys Incorporated.Some additional design documents have been included in marked up form and cross-referenced which are not part of the standard but may be useful in understanding it. Plaintext versions of these documents, which offer a useful historical perspective, are available to anyone by anonymous public FTP from ftp://parcftp.xerox.com/pub/cl/cleanup/.
The Java applet used in the Symbol Index (visible only in some browsers) was written by Evan Williams. Its copyright is owned by Xanalys Incorporated.
The HTML hypertext markup that implements the hypertext features of these World Wide Web pages of the Common Lisp specification, collectively the Common Lisp HyperSpec, is the property of Xanalys Incorporated.
Distribution of the Common Lisp HyperSpec as a hypertext document on the Internet does not constitute consent to any use of the underlying hypertext markup for redistribution of any kind, commercial or otherwise, either via the Internet or using some other form of distribution, in hypertext or otherwise.
Permission to copy, distribute, display, and transmit the Common Lisp HyperSpec is granted provided that copies are not made or distributed or displayed or transmitted for direct commercial advantage, that notice is given that copying, distribution, display, and/or transmission is by permission of Xanalys Incorporated, and that any copy made is COMPLETE and UNMODIFIED. IN PARTICULAR, the material that MUST appear in the copy includes:
Permission to make partial copies is expressly NOT granted, EXCEPT that limited permission is granted to transmit and display a partial copy the Common Lisp HyperSpec for the ordinary purpose of direct viewing by a human being in the usual manner that hypertext browsers permit the viewing of such a complete document, provided that no recopying, redistribution, redisplay, or retransmission is made of any such partial copy.
Permission to make modified copies is expressly NOT granted.
Permission to add or replace any links or any graphical images to any of these pages is expressly NOT granted.
Permission to use any of the included graphical (GIF) images in any document other than the Common Lisp HyperSpec is expressly NOT granted.
Parts of this work incorporate material taken from
American National Standard X3.226, copyright 1994, and
is used with permission of the
ITI, 1250 Eye St., NW., Suite 200, Washington, DC 20005
and of the copyright holder,
American National Standards Institute.
ANSI/X3.226 was developed by
Technical Committee X3J13,
Copies of the ANSI/X3.226 standard may be purchased from the American National Standards Institute, 11 West 42nd Street, New York, NY 10036.
``Use, duplication, or disclosure by the United States Government is subject to the restrictions set forth in (i) FAR 52.227-14 Alt III, (ii) FAR 52.227-19, (iii) DFARS 252.7013(c)(1)(ii), or (iv) the accompanying license Agreement, as applicable. For purposes of the FAR, the Software shall be deemed to be ``unpublished'' and licensed with disclosure prohibitions, rights reserved under the copyright laws of the United States. Harlequin Incorporated, One Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142.''
Not all notations in that TeX-based document were possible to represent
HTML, although an attempt has been made to be as accurate as possible.
Nevertheless, the process of translation was heuristic, and
discrepancies might have resulted.
Formally, the official ANSI printed document
is always the definitive reference.
X3J13 issue documents
are not part of the standard and are provided purely for historical
perspective. It is possible that some of the documents, as included,
are not the final form that X3J13 voted,
or that some which were voted were omitted,
or that references from these documents into the source text are not complete,
or that some edits prescribed by these documents were incorrectly implemented,
or that other discrepancies exist between these documents and the
These documents have no formal weight,
and in all cases, the hardcopy specification
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Common Lisp Hyperspec; Transducer; Liquid Common Lisp; Watson; KnowledgeWorks; and FreeLisp are trademarks of Xanalys Incorporated.
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Reports of bugs in the specification itself should be addressed to subcommittee X3J13.